It was Saturday night on October 10, 1999. In the Finnish city of Tampere the weather was cold, but there were many people out and about, for the European Union was holding a conference in the city. Security had been heightened, and police officers had travelled from all over the country.
At 21:30 a girl named Raisa Räisänen entered a restaurant called Casablanca
with her friend. Raisa was only 16 years old, so she used a fake ID. She was 175 cm (5'8 ) tall and athletic. Her hair was midi-length and ginger coloured. She was dressed for a night out, wearing a mini skirt, a red top, a black blazer, and sandals with 10cm (4 inch) heels.
In the restaurant Raisa danced with a consript, who soon had to return to the garrison. Witnesses later testified, that Raisa had been drunk, but not excessively so.
At 22:00 Raisa left the restaurant with her friend. At 22:18 she called her boyfriend, who was at a party in the neighbouring town of Pirkkala. Raisa said that she might also come to Pirkkala, if she managed to get a ride.
Around 23:00 Raisa's friend's boyfriend arrived by car, and Raisa's friend entered the car. There were also two other boys in the car. They were going to the town of Huittinen, to a restaurant called Huittisen Seurahuone
. There was no room for Raisa in the car. Her friend gave her some money, and they agreed to call each other later. This was the last confirmed sighting of Raisa.
After midnight Raisa's friend returned to Tampere. She tried to call Raisa twice, but she wouldn't pick up the phone. The friend assumed that Raisa had taken the bus home.
In the morning Raisa's mother tried to call her daughter. Her phone had been turned off. She had disappeared. Did she drown?
Initially the police believed that Raisa may have drowned in one of the many lakes, rapids and ponds surrounding Tampere. Many bodies of water were searched, but to no avail.
In the early 2000s a fisherman caught some long, blonde hairs while fishing on a lake. His friend, who was a hairdresser, identified them as a woman's hair. The fisherman was creeped out, and threw the hair back into the water. Later he remembered Raisa's disappearance, and realised that the hair might be related to the case. He contacted the police. The area where he had found the hair was dragged, but no body was found. The Doctor
In 2001 a woman contacted the police. She had been dating a doctor, who claimed to know what happened to Raisa, and said that the killer would never be caught. According to the woman, the doctor was a "sexual maniac" fascinated by violence.
The doctor lived in the Armonkallio area. Several witnesses claimed to have seen Raisa walking though the area on the night of her disappearance. A man living in the area heard a woman screaming between 2:00 and 3:00.
After investigating the case, the police concluded that the doctor's movements on the night of the murder made it unlikely that he killed Raisa. The doctor has since died. Mysterious cars
In 2005 someone contacted the police, saying that Raisa had been grabbed from the street, and forced into an old-fashioned limousine. Another witness claimed to have seen "foreign-looking" men driving a golden Mercedes-Benz. They had stopped to talk to a blonde girl.
A third witness had seen a 30-year-old man with brown hair, escorting a light-skinned woman who was taller than him. The man walked the woman towards a car. There were two foreign-looking men standing by the vehicle.
There was also a witness who saw a short foreign man driving a red Ford Escort. Between 22.45 ja 01:00 the man stopped to talk with a girl who appeared cold. New Witnesses
In 2008 a new male witness came forward. He had danced with a girl who looked like Raisa, in a restaurant called Tampereen Seurahuone
. The girl said that her friends would be coming to the restaurant later (Raisa's friends had gone to another restaurant called Huittisen seurahuone
, but it's possible that she got them mixed up). The girl seemed younger than the other customers, and she was very cold. After a while she disappeared.
In May 2009 the police received another tip. A witness had seen a woman resembling Raisa in a restaurant called Teerenpeli
, sometime after 22:00. On the dance floor the woman had been accompanied by a large dark man of African background, and possibly a shorter Moroccan man. After dancing the woman returned to the table, and accused two Romani women of stealing her wallet or phone. A middle aged Romani man and the restaurant bouncer interfered. The witness later saw the young woman walking outside. She was lightly dressed and staggering. The search continues
In 2015 a taxi driver contacted the police. On the night of the disappearance he had driven a freezing woman who looked like Raisa. She was accompanied by a man of foreign background, probably Turkish. The woman moved to the front seat, while the man was behind the car talking to his friends. The woman said in a scared voice: "I wonder what will happen to me?" The taxi driver offered to take her home, but she refused. She stopped talking once the foreign man entered the car. The man told the driver to take them to a block of flats in the Multisilta suburb.
In June 2016 the police announced that they were looking for Raisa in the area where the taxi driver had last seen her. The police suspected that her body had been hidden there. They found nothing.
In January 2018 the police revealed that they had suspected a Turkish man for years. One witness had seen a Turkish acquaintance talking to a girl who looked like Raisa. The Turkish man was interrogated, and denied ever meeting her. He has not been outruled as a suspect. A confession
In 2013 a man sitting in a pub overheard another man talking to the bartender. The man confessed to shooting Raisa and burying her body on his property. The witness only contacted the police two years later. By that time both the suspect and the bartender had both died. The police searched the lands owned by the suspect, but found nothing. The suspect's family members did not believe in the veracity of the confession. Sources: https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raisa_Räisäsen_katoamistapaus https://www.mtvuutiset.fi/artikkeli/surmattiinko-raisa-raisanen-ampumalla-krp-tapauksesta-uusi-vihje-ruumiskoirat-etsimaan-hautapaikkaa-palkaneella/6359928#gs.b99l1z https://www.kodinkuvalehti.fi/artikkeli/lue/ihmiset/tampereella_kadonneen_raisa_rasasen_isa_jospa_joku_viela_puhuisi https://www.is.fi/kotimaa/art-2000005140040.html https://www.iltalehti.fi/uutiset/a/201701042200049243 https://www.mtvuutiset.fi/artikkeli/uusi-tieto-raisa-raisasen-katoamisesta-poliisi-epaili-jo-vuonna-2009-turkkilaista-miesta-mahdolliseksi-surmaajaksi/6727182#gs.b99mw3 https://www.mtvuutiset.fi/artikkeli/uusi-hatkahdyttava-tieto-raisa-raisasen-katoamisesta-1999-mitenkohan-minun-kay/5910380#gs.b99n93 https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-8433990 https://www.mtvuutiset.fi/artikkeli/talta-alueelta-raisa-raisasta-etsitaan-tutkimus-henkirikoksista-poliisin-apuna/5946350#gs.b9a6jf https://www.is.fi/kotimaa/art-2000000268114.html?nomobile=4 https://www.is.fi/kotimaa/art-2000000306033.html
I sometimes lurk this subreddit because on average it tends to be a space for open-minded discussion with participants from both ends of the opinion spectrum, at least compared to many other subreddits that discuss similar topics within their echo chambers. Sex and the intersexual dynamics between men and women obviously is one of the central, if not the central, discussion topics here and on related subreddits. Yet something that I often find myself wanting when reading various topics are actual statistics. For example, the 80/20 rule is a popular concept here and over at TRP, but the vast majority of topics discussing it are based on anecdotal evidence. Sure, naturally, due to the nature of the topic the evidence will predominantly be anecdotal and anecdotal evidence does not automatically equate untrue evidence. Even so, data collected in a more scientific manner would not hurt. Unfortunately, my own search for data on sex tells me that good data is hard to find. There does not seem to be a lot of academic research asking the “right” questions from a PPD/TRP perspective and whenever you stumble upon something interesting more often than not it tends to be some online survey from a non-academic entity (think condom manufacturer or women’s magazine).
Today I did however come across an interesting Finnish study on sexuality within the Finnish population. The study is called “FINSEX” and has been conducted by the Finnish organization “Väestöliitto”. Väestöliitto, “the Family Federation of Finland” in English, is a family welfare organization working in the social and health sector founded in 1941. Its members represent non-governmental non-profit organizations in the fields of family, health, children, women and youth. The study, which is based on a survey that was first carried out in 1971 and that has since been replicated in 1992, 1999, 2007 and 2015, consists of 120+ questions spanning over 30 different areas of sexuality. I found it interesting to see how the expression of our sexuality has changed for both genders from 1971 to present day and 2015, and I believe that the study may form a basis for an interesting discussion here at PPD.
The published study contains a large number of diagrams presenting the findings from a multitude of areas. Being from Finland does mean that the study unfortunately is in Finnish but I took the liberty of translating a selection of diagrams (40) that I found particularly interesting to English. (Thank you Google Translate!) I’ll post links to those translated diagrams below, together with links to the original source and the actual survey questionnaire.
Some findings that I found interesting, together with a few hypothetical statements/questions of my own in an effort to spark discussion, are:
- Aged 18-24 women report more sexual partners than aged 18-24 men, median 5 partners for women and median 3 partners for men 2015. (Side note, interesting with a median for once! For some reason most similar studies insist on only reporting the mean.). Women’s median has been rising for each consecutive survey whereas men’s median has been decreasing. If instead looking at the mean and not the median men report more sexual partners than women at all ages. What could be the reason(s) for this discrepancy? Is it due to the fact that women mature earlier sexually and on average lose their virginity earlier? Is it because women on average have an easier time finding sexual partners? Why is men’s average higher while their median partner count is lower, are a few men having lots of sexual partners and skewing the statistics? Could the average value be skewed as a result of a part (albeit a small one) of the sample group being made up of homosexual men, as homosexual men on average have more partners? Or is the faulty link simply that even in anonymous surveys some men tend to significantly over report their number of partners?
- 35% of women aged 18-24 report having had 2 or more sexual partners within the last year. For men only 19% report having had 2 or more sexual partners within the last year. 1992, 1999 and 2007 31-36% percent of women aged 18-24 have reported having had 2 or more sexual partners within the last year. 1992, 1999 and 2007 35-49% of men aged 18-24 reported having had 2 or more sexual partners within the last year. Why the steep drop for men in 2015? A statistical anomaly? Or an effect of the broad adoption of online dating apps such as Tinder? The graph depicting how many that have had 2 or more sexual partners within the last year is fairly even throughout the various age ranges for men whereas it falls with age for women to a higher degree. Why is this? Are women on average having more sexual partners than same aged men in their youth before eventually settling down whereas the same men that had a lot of partners in their youth continue to do so even as they age? Hypothetically, if one accepts the previous statement as true, these high partner count men could of course be settling down in long term relationships as well but be more prone to infidelity due to a number of factors.
- Women lose their virginity before men and both genders report lower and lower sexual debut ages. Respondents that reported having had intercourse for the first time 2005-2009 had an average age of 16,5 for women (down from 21,3 in 1937-1941) and 17.5 for men (down from 19,8 in 1937-1941).
- Marginally more men than women now report having been in love with their first intercourse partner. This is a significant difference to 1937-1941. Back then 83% of women and 44% of men reported having been in love. In 2010-2014 48% of men (who have consistently hovered around 40-50%) reported having been in love with their first partner whereas 38% of women lost their virginity to someone that they were in love with.
- Not only were more men than women in love with their first partner but the roles have also reversed between the genders when it comes to willingness to engage in sexual intercourse without being in love. 73% (up from 41% in 1971) of men aged 18-24 report that they are willing to have sex without love whereas the corresponding value for women aged 18-24 is 80% (up from 22% in 1971). Men catch up to women in the age group 25-34 though where both genders report an 80% willingness to engage in sex without love.
- More young women than men have had sex with a foreigner, this applies both to sex with a foreigner in Finland and with a foreigner while on a trip abroad. Men do however catch up to and surpass women in both categories in the age groups 35-44 and 45-54. 9% of men aged 18-24 and 14% of women aged 18-24 have had sex with a foreigner while abroad whereas the corresponding numbers for men aged 45-54 and women aged 45-54 are 28% and 18% respectively. Why do more young women than men have sexual relations with foreigners? A simple matter of access to sex? Why do men surpass women with age? Have more men made themselves comparatively attractive with age having increased their wealth and status? Or is the answer prostitution?
- Positively, the reported rate of infidelity has decreased for both genders with each subsequent survey. Fewer people than ever seem to be cheating on their significant other. Men still cheat more than women but the difference is marginal. Living apart together seems to be a bad solution for anyone that values fidelity. About a third of respondents that identify with this relationship status across both genders report having cheated on their partner at least once within the last year. Why is the rate of infidelity decreasing? Do we live in a culture today where fidelity is expected to a higher degree than during previous decades? Can the answer be found in the fact that fewer people today report being in relationships and that the average relationship length reportedly is becoming shorter?
- An increase in pornography use across both genders. In 2007 80% of men aged 18-24 and 25% of women aged 18-24 reported having watched internet porn within the last year. In 2015 the corresponding numbers were 90% for men and 60% for women. What effects is this having on the actual sex act (both casual and within committed relationships), relationships in general and the sexual market place i.e. the intersexual dynamics between the genders and also within the genders?
- One answer to the question phrased in the previous paragraph can perhaps be found in the fact that for each subsequent survey higher percentages report having tried anal sex, approving of consensual sadomasochistic sex, and in general approving of what has in the past been considered more deviant sexual behaviour such as group sex.
- Both genders report higher percentages of sexual attraction towards members of the same sex. Up from 9% in 1992 to 18% in 2015 for men aged 18-24 and from 6% in 1992 to 39% for women aged 18-24. In 1992 6% of women aged 18-24 reported having had a sexual experience with another woman, in 2015 that number had almost quadrupled reaching 23%. What is the reason(s) for the substantial increase of sexual interest towards members of the same gender, especially among women? Is pornography the main cause? Is the change predominantly the result of changing and more liberal attitudes within society towards same-sex sexuality? Do women find the typical man today less attractive than the typical man a couple of decades ago and as a result of this divert part of their sexual attraction towards women? Why has the increase in same-sex sexual attraction been larger for women than men? Are women naturally more predisposed towards bisexuality than men? Are men more homophobic and therefore less likely to admit to even themselves that they are attracted to other men? Is society more approving of bisexuality among women than men? Are women less approving, from a sexual attraction stand point, of bisexual men than men of bisexual women?
- “Women primarily attracted to men” report higher percentages across a range of indicators for sexual activity than “women only attracted to men”.
- Perhaps unsurprisingly men are much more approving of prostitution than women. Around 60-70% of men approve of prostitution whereas only around 25% of women agree that individuals should be allowed to earn money by selling sexual favours. Around 55-60% of men support the establishment of regulated brothels, for women the corresponding percentage is around 20%. Why is this? Are women in general much more concerned with things such as human trafficking and other exploitation of human beings? Does the female rationale for their opposition towards prostitution have more biological causes, i.e. wanting to restrict men's access to sex?
“FINSEX” – Finnish study on sexuality in Finland. Recurring survey, conducted 1971, 1992, 1999, 2007 and 2015. What does PPD have to say about the findings, are they in line with what you would have expected? What, if any, societal effects do the changes in sexual behaviour across both genders have?
Diagrams with English translations; Single file
, Gallery with multiple files Original source
(with more data/diagrams in addition to my selection, in Finnish) Survey questionnaire
Other interesting publications based on the FINSEX surveys by one of the authors of the FINSEX studies (in English): Between Sexual Desire and Reality
) Determinants of female sexual orgasms